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The Senate passed legislation Wednesday that would reverse a Biden administration rule restricting heavy-duty truck emissions.

The Republican-authored measure passed 50-49, with the help of one Democrat, Sen. Joe Manchin III of West Virginia.

The bill would void a Biden administration rule issued in December that would limit nitrogen oxide emissions from new semis and other heavy trucks. The measure is likely to pass the GOP-led House, but President Biden has threatened to veto it and there are not enough votes in either chamber to override it. 

The vote served as another rebuke of the president in the Democratic-led Senate. In March, the Senate passed a resolution that would block Mr. Biden’s new rule extending federal regulations to small bodies of water. 

Wednesday’s vote was intended to reverse an Environmental Protection Agency rule announced last year as part of a “Clean Trucks Plan” to reduce the pollution produced by heavy trucks. 

According to the EPA, nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas “causing the Earth’s atmosphere to warm, resulting in changes to the climate we are already starting to see today.”

Senate Environment and Public Works Chairman Thomas R. Carper, Delaware Democrat, slammed the joint resolution and warned it could create new uncertainty for truckers and undercut the EPA’s ability to do its job.

“These standards are achievable, and they provide predictability for industry,” Mr. Carper argued. The EPA, he added, “listened to a range of stakeholders during the rulemaking process, and finalized standards that are feasible and cost-effective for manufacturers and fleet operators.”

But critics say the regulations will significantly hamper the trucking industry, threaten the reliability of the supply chain and hurt the overall economy.

Those who oppose the regulation say heavy duty trucks have already significantly reduced emissions without government intervention. 

“Higher priced trucks. Fewer drivers. Higher costs for consumer goods. That’s an outcome working families and supply chains just can’t stomach,” Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, a Kentucky Republican, said, ahead of the vote.

The measure was considered under the Congressional Review Act that allows lawmakers to block executive branch actions. 

The sponsor of the legislation, Republican Sen. Deb Fischer of Nebraska, said the EPA has determined the cost of complying with the emission rule could reach $55 billion between 2027 and 2045, which could force trucking businesses that cannot afford to comply to shut down.  The higher costs of shipping goods would also be passed along to consumers, she said.

“The last thing this country needs. It’s more expensive freight costs and fewer truckers,” she said.

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